Clinicopathology of Thyroid
Gland Anomalies in Chelonians
- by J. GÁL -
The thyroid gland is situated outside of the celom (body or somatic) cavity, in front of the basis cordis (the base of the heart) in chelonians. Its size generally varies between that of a millet seed and a lentil
(Figure 1), but may reach that of a cherry pit in large-bodied tortoises (e.g., Geochelone spp.). A healthy thyroid gland usually has a brownish red color, with a homogeneous parenchyma and a dense but flexible touch (IPPEN et al. 1985, FRYE 1991). From the outside the organ is enclosed in a capsule of subcutaneous tissue. Its parenchyma consists of so-called acini, the cavity of which has a circular
or ovoid shape in histological preparations (Figure 2). In turn the cavity of the acini is lined with cuboidal type epithelium cells, the morphology of which varies according to the functionality level of the
gland (Figure 3). In case the acini are filled to a great extent with colloid material, the epithelium cells are flattened whereas in case of reduced colloid contents they are high and resemble cuboidal-type
cells. Normally the epithelium cells are aligned in a single row, and their nuclei are central or basal.
Observations in the Natural Habitat
and First Successful Breeding of
- by H. ARTNER -
Acanthochelys macrocephala occurs from southeastern Bolivia
and the Pantanal region of Brazil to the Gran Chaco area of Paraguay
(RHODIN et al. 1984, BUSKIRK 1988, IVERSON 1992,
VINKE & VINKE 2001). It might be present in the Chaco Austral
area of northwestern Argentina as well but this still awaits confirmation.
The Gran Chaco in south-central South America comprises approximately 800,000 square kilometers
(308,882 square miles) in Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. Bordered in the north by the Sierra de
Santiago in Bolivia and by the Andes in the west, it reaches down to the Sierra de Cordoba in
Argentina. Its eastern border is the Rio Paraguay. It is one of the driest areas in South America, especially in its western parts.
The Holotype of
and the Lectotype of
- R.Bour -
The specific name is mis-spelled (“bodderti”) in the caption.
name for T. cartilaginea: Trionyx stellatus, which was considered as a species of its own (GEOFFROY 1809a: 365, 1809b: 13). Moreover,
GEOFFROY revealed that “c’est sur l’individu même de BODDAERT que j’en ai donné les caractères: il a passé, avec le cabinet du Stathouder, au Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle” [it is the very same BODDAERT
specimen of which I supplied characteristics; passed with the
Stathouder cabinet to the Natural History Museum] (Fig. 2). In other
terms, it was one of the spoils of the Napoleonic Wars. The diagnosis by GEOFFROY was almost entirely based on the presence of star-like spots on the rear part of the shell; this pattern is quite obvious in
1st Annual Freshwater
Turtle Symposium of EFTBA
- G. RAFALOWSKI -
Last time I flew by plane was well over ten years ago. While preparing myself mentally to that experience I decided to face the task frontally and with a respective attention I watched all the episodes of the
series “Seconds from disaster” presented on National Geographic
Channel assuming that doing so I’ll be efficiently immunized against any fears of flying. In result, however, during the flight (both directions, by the way) I have doomed my imagination to review all possible catastrophe scenarios that could materialize during my journey. Finally, the only attractions proved to be the first-aid aerobics demonstrated by the stewardesses, and then some sporadic and sort of hesitant turbulences, possibly simulated by the pilot himself, in order to make the journey more eventful for the passengers.
Long Term Maintenance and Breeding
of the Ornate Box Turtle
Terrapene ornata ornata
by H. ARTNER
Adults – The maximum size reported so far is 15.4 cm carapace length (6.06"; ERNST et al.
1994). The carapace is rather roundish and wider than in Terrapene carolina. It is mostly flattened
on top and dorsally, and usually there is no vertebral keel present. There are no serrations at the
rear of the carapace. Its color is brownish to almost totally black with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe.
Light lines are radiating out of the scute centers similar to T. carolina bauri. The plastron is
equipped with a strong and fully functional hinge between the pectoral and abdominal scutes thus
dividing it into two lobes. Similarly to the carapace also the plastron has a pattern of radiating
lines on each scute.